izmir haber izmir haber malatya haber malatya haber
 
MarineBusiness-World.com
 
 
News Home Australian Cruising FishingBoating Photo Gallery Sail-World Australia
Sail-World.com : Ice detection with thermal imaging cameras
Ice detection with thermal imaging cameras

'Traversing the Arctic waters becomes much safer with the help of a thermal imaging camera.'    FLIR
The earth's Polar Regions are considered by many seafarers to be among the most challenging environments in the world.

The combination of extremely long nights, harsh weather and icebergs can make a trip through Arctic and Antarctic waters dangerous. Nowadays these trips can be made safer by using a thermal imaging camera from FLIR Systems. Thermal imaging can help seafarers to find the safest path through the ice.

Glacier ice is difficult to track by marine radar as the radar signal is scattered by air bubbles and other imperfections in the ice. Many experienced seafarers can attest to the difficulty of detecting ice with radar. Even the radar signal returns from large icebergs are much lower than from ship targets because of the lower radar reflectivity of ice (and especially snow) if compared with steel. Detection of ice targets is therefore rather difficult, especially if they have low or smooth profiles.

For the test two models of the M-Series were mounted on a tripod next to the bridge of an ice strengthened vessel that traverses the Arctic waters of Greenland. -  FLIR  
Pieces of ice also break off from icebergs. The larger pieces are known as bergy bits, and the smaller pieces are known as growlers. These smaller pieces are even harder to detect by radar. This is particularly true in heavy sea conditions where the radar returns from ice floes may be lost in the so-called 'sea clutter', which means that the waves show up on the radar image, making it difficult to distinguish between ice and the waves.

During the daylight hours the inability of radar to detect ice in certain conditions can be compensated by visual inspection. This requires good visibility. However, in the long polar nights this task becomes very difficult due to the lack of light and even during those scarce hours of daylight the visibility might be restricted by fog or snow.

Fog is common in the Arctic during the open water period and during the winter snowstorms regularly occur. In the nighttime the combination of darkness and fog or snow can limit the capability of regular eyesight to detect ice hazards even further.

The cameras were tested on this ice strengthened vessel traversing Greenland's ice filled waters. -  FLIR  
The solution to this problem can be found in using a thermal imaging camera. Thermal imaging cameras record the intensity of electromagnetic radiation in the infrared spectrum. All matter emits infrared radiation, even objects we think of as cold, such as ice, emit infrared radiation. In a thermal imaging camera the infrared radiation is focused by a lens onto the detector. The intensity of the recorded infrared radiation is translated into a visual image.

Because thermal imaging cameras rely on thermal contrast instead of color contrast they do not need lighting to produce crisp images during the night. They provide a good overview of the situation giving a much better idea of the surroundings than the narrow beam of a searchlight. Also, searchlights are of limited use in snow and fog. Its light beam does not reach far in such conditions. When fog or snow impedes vision thermal imaging cameras can also help the ship's captain and navigators to see farther.

The JCU and the screen were installed on the bridge. -  FLIR  
FLIR Systems set out to determine how its maritime cameras perform in the field. For this field test two versions of the FLIR M-Series thermal imaging camera were mounted on a tripod next to the bridge of an ice strengthened vessel traversing Greenland's ice filled waters to deliver fuel to its remote settlements. In this extreme environment, arguably one of the most dangerous maritime areas in the world with its floating chunks of years old dense glacier ice, FLIR's thermal imaging cameras were put to the test. They passed the field test with flying colors.

The test clearly showed that thermal imaging cameras are capable of detecting ice in total darkness and even during snowfall. In total darkness, the visual light of a search beam is reflected by the snowflakes, impeding vision. Thermal imaging cameras perform much better under these circumstances, as the test clearly showed, maintaining a good range performance despite the snowfall.

Thermal imaging cameras need no light whatsoever to produce crisp high contrast thermal images, making it the ideal tool for those long Arctic nights. -  FLIR  
During the test thermal imaging cameras were successfully used to detect pieces of ice of different sizes and shapes. These are generally divided into three categories: icebergs, bergy bits and growlers. Icebergs are floating chunks of ice with more than five meters of its height exposed above sea level. Bergy bits are pieces of icebergs showing one to five meters above sea level. Growlers are pieces of icebergs showing less than one meter above sea level. With the thermal imaging camera all of those three categories were detected.

Due to their size icebergs are usually relatively easy to detect by radar. In most occasions using radar should suffice in detecting them. The bergy bits are smaller than full-grown icebergs, making them harder to detect, both by radar and visually. Even the large bergy bits can be difficult to detect using marine radar, due to their shape. The sides of bergy bits are often oriented in such a way that radar energy is deflected away from the antennae. Combined with sea clutter this bergy bit characteristic can make it really difficult to spot them on the radar. During the test many bergy bits were observed with the thermal imaging camera, they showed up very clearly in the thermal image.

Growlers, being the smallest category, are the most difficult form of ice to detect both visually and on radar. Though small, growlers can still pose a serious threat even for ice strengthened vessels. Growlers made out of ice less than one year old should not be able to cause much damage to such vessels, if they maintain a safe speed. Due to its pressurized environment ice from glaciers and multi-year sea ice can have a much higher density, so growlers made of multi-year ice can be a lot heavier than those made out of the less dense 'younger' ice.

These bergy bits deflect radar signals away from the antennae, but they show up clearly on a thermal image. -  FLIR  
Even the hull of ice strengthened vessels can be damaged in case of a collision with a multi-year ice growler. Also the fuel consumption of a vessel is higher if it is slowed down due to the impact of such collisions. It is therefore much safer and more efficient to avoid all growlers and bergy bits. Growlers can easily be obscured by the sea clutter on the radar screen, especially if they have a smooth relief that deflects radar energy away from the antennae. In clear conditions it may be possible to detect growlers visually, but at night and in bad weather that becomes increasingly difficult.

Governmental authorities warn seafarers that traverse Arctic waters not to trust on radar alone to detect icebergs, bergy bits and growlers in fog and darkness. Given the fact that the force of impact in case of collision varies as the square of the speed the authorities advise to lower the speed of the vessel. The prudent speed in a given ice condition is a result of the visibility, the ice type and concentration, the ice class, and the maneuvering characteristics of the ship.

With a thermal imaging camera on the prow you can not only avoid collisions with icebergs, bergy bits and growlers, using a thermal imaging camera can also help increase the speed at which the vessel can safely move through waters where ice collision hazards are suspected. Since thermal imaging cameras help increase the visibility drastically, the speed at which the ship can safely move through ice filled waters is much higher. This increases the overall efficiency of the vessel.

These bergy bits show up clearly on these thermal images. -  FLIR  
Thermal imaging cameras can be used to detect ice because the ice is generally much colder than the surrounding ocean. Not only do the temperatures of the ice and the seawater differ, in most cases there is also a difference in emissivity. Emissivity can be described as the ability of a material to emit energy by radiation, more specifically the ability to emit thermal radiation. Two objects at the same temperature but with different emissivity will present different levels thermal radiance to the thermal imaging camera.

Most of the ice in the sea surrounding Greenland originates from glaciers and therefore mostly consists of fresh water. The exact emissivity differs slightly depending on the circumstances, but generally speaking fresh water has a higher emissivity than the salty sea water. This means that even if the temperature of the ice and the seawater are the same temperature, there will still be a contrast between the two in the thermal image. Another factor is the movement of the surface. The surface of the seawater is ever moving, rippling and churning, while the surface of the ice is solid, still. Even when the amount of thermal radiation emitted to the thermal imaging camera is more or less the same, which means that the ice and the water have more or less the same color in the thermal image, the ice will stand out in the thermal image due to this difference.

The FLIR M-Series thermal imaging camera is available with a variety of sensors and resolutions to meet a wide range of maritime needs. For the ice detection test the models M-612L and M-625L were used. Both of these models include a thermal imaging camera with an uncooled Vanadium Oxide (VOx) microbolometer detector that produces thermal images at a resolution of 640x480 pixels and a 100 ?lx Lowlight CCD camera, mounted in a rugged waterproof housing capable of 360° pan and +/-90° tilt that is waterproof and contains internal heating to ensure its performance even in such cold environments as the Arctic. The difference between the two is the optics and resulting field of view. The lens of the M-625L gives it a field of view of 25° × 20°. Although this gives an excellent situational awareness, the range performance is better with a narrower field of view. The M-612L has a field of view of 12° x 10°, which is narrower, allowing for a better range performance.

Even these small pices of ice slush show up clearly in the thermal image. -  FLIR  
In average conditions the thermal imaging camera incorporated in the M-625L is capable of detecting a small vessel (2.3 m × 2.3 m) at a distance of over two kilometers (over one nautical mile). The M-612L's thermal imaging camera can be used to detect the same size target at a distance of over three kilometers (over 1.7 nautical miles). The test conclusively showed that thermal imaging cameras are able to detect bergy bits of similar size in real life situations from roughly equivalent distances, despite snowfall reducing their range performance. This makes FLIR thermal imaging cameras an ideal addition to conventional ice detection tools, filling in the gaps where radar and searchlight underperform.

In the crisp high contrast thermal images the smallest of details are shown, regardless of lighting. This not only allows these thermal imaging cameras to aid the captain and navigators with ice detection, it can also prove invaluable in man overboard situations. In these cold waters hypothermia can prove to be deadly within minutes, so if a man overboard situation does arise then finding the fallen crewmember swiftly is of paramount importance. Thermal imaging cameras have shown their value in such search and rescue operations all over the world, but in the cold waters and long dark nights of the Arctic using thermal imaging can make an even bigger difference. The large temperature contrast between the cold water and the warm person allows the camera operator to swiftly locate the waterborne person regardless of lighting. Due to the freezing temperatures in the Arctic waters the time saved by using a thermal imaging camera can easily make the difference between life and death.

Installing a FLIR thermal imaging camera on vessels traversing Arctic waters will help avoid collisions, increase efficiency and help safeguard the safety of the crew in case of man overboard situations regardless of lighting conditions and in all types of weather.

FLIR website


by FLIR


  

Click on the FB Like link to post this story to your FB wall

http://www.marinebusiness-world.com/index.cfm?nid=122745

11:55 AM Thu 29 May 2014GMT


Click here for printer friendly version
Click here to send us feedback or comments about this story.


Related News Stories:
30 May 2014  Genoa Pilot Corps installs FLIR thermal imaging camera on board
30 May 2014  Thermal imaging shows the way to a safer Sydney Harbour
30 May 2014  Thermal imaging cameras help oil tankers navigate safely
09 May 2014  FLIR thermal imaging camera increases security and safely navigation
30 Oct 2013  Furuno NavNet TZtouch provides control of FLIR M-Series thermal camera
24 May 2013  FLIR cross Princess Leia with an Imperial Stormtrooper + Video





Marine Business News

Commercial and regulatory challenges are driving the development of new technologies and strategies for the design and operation of ships. To date, most improvements in ship fuel efficiency have been realised through changes in behaviour, such as slow steaming, and reductions in installed power, to meet the Energy Efficiency Design Index (EEDI) requirements. ... [more]  

Ever since the first Wooden Boat Festival was held in Hobart in 1994, Jude and I have dreamt of attending. Where else would we see hundreds of classic and historical timber vessels gathered in a city renowned for its natural beauty and deep connection with Australia’s past. ... [more]  

At the RYA Suzuki Dinghy Show today (01 March), disabled teen sailor Natasha ‘Miss Isle’ Lambert presented a cheque for £5,469.20 to the RYA Foundation, following her epic ‘Sea and Summit Challenge’. ... [more]  

RYA Dinghy Show - RYA Club of the Year 2015 award winner announced by Susie Nation-Grainger - RYA Press Office
At the RYA Suzuki Dinghy Show (Saturday 28 February) - RYA Club of the Year 2015 received their award from British Sailing Team’s Nick Thompson and RYA CEO, Sarah Treseder. ... [more]  

The International Sonar Class is pleased to announce that Shumway Marine, with the cooperation of designer Bruce Kirby has made arrangements to have the Sonar built by Rondar Race Boats in the U.K., with plans eventually to have the boat built on both sides of the ocean. The American Rondar facility is in Peabody, MA. Rondar, expects to launch its first Sonar in April. ... [more]  

Rio de Janeiro's state environmental agency says it is investigating a fish die-off that has left thousands of carcasses floating in waters where sailing events are to be held when Brazil hosts next year's Olympics. ... [more]  

The 2015 RYA Suzuki Dinghy Show brought to you by the RYA, in association with Yachts and Yachting (28 February-01 March), was opening byfour time Laser World Champion Medallist Nick Thompson and Ben Ainslie Racing (BAR) sailor David ‘Freddie’ Carr. ... [more]  

RYA Suzuki Dinghy Show - a British tradition by Rob Kothe and Jedda Murphy
Our favourite boat show in the whole world is the RYA Suzuki Dinghy Show. It is like no other, with a large percentage of eight to 15-year olds, with many young siblings often dragging their parents down the aisles. Its a dull overcast day in Lonon with rain showers, but inside the heated halls of the Alexandra Palace, the fabled 'Ally Pally' , around 5,000 visitors will gaze at touch and feel ... [more]  

Suzuki Marine Dealers up and down the country will this week take delivery of a brand new stock of DF2.5Ls – the long shaft edition, which will also be taking pride of place on the Suzuki stand (F10) at the upcoming RYA Suzuki Dinghy Show (28 February – 01 March). ... [more]  

The Coast Guard Foundation, a non-profit organization committed to the education and welfare of Coast Guard members and their families, announced today 2015 scholarship opportunities. Accepting applications until March 15th, children of enlisted Coast Guard members may apply for scholarships ranging from $1,000 to $5,000 per year. ... [more]  

At the prestigious Superyacht Design Symposium in Kitzbuhel, Austria, Britain companies took top ShowBoats Design Awards. From the 17 Awards presented on the night, 12 included the work of nine British-based architect and design companies. ... [more]  

US Sailing’s Rolex Yachtsman & Yachtswoman of the Year Awards 2015 ceremony celebrated the sailing accomplishments of Terry Hutchinson (Annapolis, Md.) and Stephanie Roble (East Troy, Wisc.) as it returned to the iconic Model Room at the New York Yacht Club in Manhattan after having moved to the west coast for the past three years. ... [more]  

Feb 27, 2015: The EUR was battered overnight, as the Dollar surged. NZ Trade data was as expected, with contraction from Exports and Imports, although the balance was positive. Central Bank activity remains the major driver of currencies while insipid economic data does not support the robust economic recovery many touted. T ... [more]  

Last year, OceansWatch trialled a Climate Change adaptation program in two communities in the Solomon Islands which have been identified as one of the countries that will be most affected by the rising sea levels and increased storm conditions. The low coral atolls where we work are especially vulnerable. ... [more]  

To coincide with Lifeskills National Careers Week (02-06 March) throughout the week the RYA will be showcasing just some of the great jobs available within the marine sector and running daily features about courses, diplomas and routes to becoming an instructor in various boating disciplines. ... [more]  

The HPYD conference is jointly organised by The Royal Institution of Naval Architects (NZ) and The University of Auckland and will be held at the Marine Event Centre in Auckland to coincide with the Volvo Ocean Race stopover. It attracts some of the world’s most preeminent yacht designers and is recognised as one of the top three conferences in this area internationally. ... [more]  

Rainbow II is one of the most iconic yachts in New Zealand sailing history. Built and skippered by Chris Bouzaid, her win in the One Ton Cup in 1969 was New Zealand’s first big international sailing win. Doyle Sails NZ was commissioned to build the new sails for the iconic Rainbow II with design work by Chris’ son Richard ... [more]  

Sailors for the Sea and Cruising Club of America will work together to encourage sailors to become stewards of the ocean. Sailors for the Sea, a leading conservation organization that engages, educates, inspires and activates the sailing and boating community toward healing the ocean, will partner with the Cruising Club of America (CCA), an international organization of over 1,300 sailors ... [more]  

RYA Suzuki Dinghy Show 2015 brought to you by the RYA, is the only place to be this weekend (28 February-01 March) whether you’ve never set foot in a dinghy or you’re a seasoned pro. ... [more]  

Feb 26, 2015: The AUD jumped towards 0.7900, while the KIWI traded 0.7530, looking at the release of Trade data today. Exports and Imports are expected to be lower reflecting the economic environment, although the balance is expected to be static. Central Banks continue to drive market direction while economic data remains a symptom. ... [more]  

These school holidays families are invited to spend the day having a deep sea adventure at the Australian National Maritime Museum as it presents a range of activities for children inspired by its family exhibition Voyage to the Deep: Underwater Adventures. Have fun making deep sea creatures, take part in a Claymation workshop and get hands on with the Cabinet of Curiosities. ... [more]  

Clamcleats Limited will be at the RYA Suzuki Dinghy Show over the weekend of 28 February – 01 March at Alexandra Palace, London. As part of their 50th anniversary celebrations, they have a competition to win one of three Topper Taz dinghies! ... [more]  

Following negotiations with Shumway Marine and the full support of the designer Bruce Kirby, the existing moulds and templates have now been purchased by Rondar Raceboats Ltd. ... [more]  

2015 Miami International Boat Show – StormFender LLC is excited to announce that its StormFenderTM dock-mounted fender system earned a coveted Innovation Award in the 'Docking & Fendering Equipment' category. These prestigious accolades are presented annually by the National Marine Manufacturers Association (NMMA) and Boating Writers International (BWI). ... [more]  

Hamilton Island Audi Race Week 2015 – Have you booked your accommodation? It is always good to book early to secure the best properties as these book out first. ... [more]  

A collaboration agreement with Alex Thomson Racing has been signed today with Haydale Graphene Industries plc. The Technical Team at ATR will implement their graphene based products and technology in their latest Research and Development programme. ... [more]  

Sydney Trailer Boat Show – With origins going back to the early sixties at Silverwater Park, the Show has been heralded as one of Sydney’s oldest Boat Shows and has evolved to bring visitors a greater line up of trailer boating, a segment that remains the leading and most popular boating type for Australians ... [more]  

Garmin’s new GPSMAP 7400xsvseries of premiummulti-function displays (MFD) combines powerful performance with a renowned interface to deliver a range of class-leading features in a fully-networkable, simple-to-use package. ... [more]  

Feb 25, 2015: Markets switched focus overnight as the spotlight turned to interest rates away from the fears of a Greek default. EU Finance Ministers accepted conditions from Greece to extend the bailout packages. This confirms obligations that already existed but allowed some semantic concessions to to appease voters. ... [more]  

Airbnb may a popular 'peer-to-peer' lodging site on the web, but if you want to rent a boat in your local area or away, you’ve got options, too. Boatbound.com, Boatsetter.com and Cruzin.com are just a few of the new crop of online websites offering a chance to rent a boat for the day or weekend. ... [more]  

XCAT World Series – It’s official. That’s after the final host agreement was signed by HE Dr Saif Al Ketbi (President of the WPPA) and the honourable Mayor of the City of Gold Coast, Tom Tate, in Dubai today in Fujairah this weekend. ... [more]  

Feb 24, 2015: The week opened with the Greek debt scenario hanging over markets. The Greeks must come up with a plan to re-negotiate their debt bailout by today and thus far, have not looked like doing this, failing to gain support. ... [more]  

Marine15 International Conference and Trade Exhibition – A growing list of pre and post events is being staged, 3 – 5 May on the Gold Coast. According to marine15 Organising Committee Chairman Jeff d’Albora there are now nine pre and post marine15 events that will add additional value for delegates. ... [more]  

GC Intel Marine Expo - Havana Houseboats announces world first
Elvstrom Sails UK announce new authorised dealer in Brighton
The history of the Optimist Dinghy
Sydney Sailboat Expo supports Andrew Simpson Sailing Foundation
Gold Coast boatbuilder Telwater forced to lay off 45 staff
Beneteau Oceanis 35 - The 3-in-1 Marvel
Fusion® introduces groundbreaking new Signature series speakers
Hobie returns to Sanctuary Cove International Boat Show
RYA Suzuki Dinghy Show 2015 – British Sailing Team experts lined up
RYA Dinghy Show – Ben Ainslie Racing to be the star attraction
RYA Suzuki Dinghy Show - Boats, gadgets, kit and more
Collinson FX Market Commentary: Feb 20 - Dips and struggles
Collinson FX Market Commentary: Feb 19 - Markets wait
Tropical cyclone Marcia set to hit Queensland coast possibly Cat 5
35th Maarten Heineken Regatta - Loyal sponsors continue support
Gold Coast Marine Expo - Super 60s set to stun multihull lovers
Australian 4x4 and Marine Expo - Snow Sailor and Baja confirmed
Kite Controller gives wings to kayaks and canoes
Fusion® unveils 750 and 650 series marine entertainment systems
Collinson FX Market Commentary: Feb 17 - Kiwi benefits from big margin
Collinson FX Market Commentary: Feb 18 - Kiwi benefits from big margin   
RYA Suzuki Dinghy Show is full of activities to entertain whole family   
Australian Master Marine conduct sea class trials on new boats   
RYA Dinghy Show - Laserperformance to exhibit iconic boats   
Discover Nautor's Swan history, features and behind-the-scene stories   
RYA Suzuki Dinghy Show 2015 - Graduates to unveil a brand new boat   
Gold Coast Marine Expo - Fishing expert puts latest lures to work   
A critical time for Olympic and Paralympic sailing *Feature   
Abalone, urchins and periwinkles taken at Portarlington   
Collinson FX Market Commentary: Feb 14 - The Fat get fatter   
Alex Thomson walks to the top, now in PR battle   
The RYA Suzuki Dinghy Show - What's on from the RYA   
Collinson FX Market Commentary: Feb 13 - Surge is the word in Europe   
Standards Australia committee issues lifejacket safety standards   
Gold Coast Marine Expo - Quinnie's tough new tinnies set to premiere   
Collinson FX Market Commentary: Feb 12 - Greek train-wreck dominates   
RYA Suzuki Dinghy Show - National 18 to be launched to public   
RC44 Class Association announces new partnership   
Sanctuary Cove International Boat Show to be a bumper event   
Whitsundays proposed as superyacht destination for Australia   


For this week's complete news stories select    Last 7 Days
   Search All News
For last month's complete news stories select    Last 30 Days
  





Sail-World.com  


















Switch Default Region to:

Social Media

Asia

Australia

Canada

Europe

New Zealand

United Kingdom


http://www.sail-world.com/event_images/image/Twitter_logo_small.png http://www.sail-world.com/event_images/image/FaceBook-icon.png  http://www.sail-world.com/event_images/image/RSS-Icon.png

United States

Cruising Northern

Cruising Southern

MarineBusiness World

PowerBoat World

FishingBoating World

 

Contact

Commercial

News

Search

Contact Us

Advertisers Information

Submit news/events

Search Stories/Text

Feedback

Advertisers Directory

Newsletter Archive

Photo Gallery

 

Banner Advertising Details

Newsletter Subscribe

Video Gallery

Policies

 

 

 

Privacy Policy

 

 


Cookie Policy

 

 



This site and its contents are © Copyright TetraMedia and/or the original author, photographer etc. All Rights Reserved.  Photographs are copyright by law.  If you wish to use or buy a photograph contact the photographer directly.
XLXL NEW MBW
LocalAds   DE  ES  FR  IT